If Art+Math brings one person to mind, it’s Escher. His tessellations present the best-known instance, but he did a lot more than that.
In April 2003, the mathematicians Bart de Smit and Hendrik Lenstra wrote a delightful article, Escher and the Droste effect, about Escher’s lithograph Prentententoonstelling. They pointed out that
We shall see that the lithograph can be viewed as drawn on a certain elliptic curve over the field of complex numbers…
Escher: Alhambra Sketch
I first learned as a kid that “there are only 17 basically different wallpapers” from W.W.Sawyer’s Prelude to Mathematics. (The quote appears on p.102. Aside: this remains an excellent gift for a youngster with a yen for math.) I remember my father pointing out the absurdity of this claim: are all mural wallpapers of van Gogh’s paintings basically the same?